Before the U.S. Supreme Court in Castillo v. U.S. (2000)

“Stephen Halbrook is an attorney with extensive knowledge of the historical underpinnings of the Second Amendment and practical knowledge of litigating in this rapidly evolving area of law. His writings include topics as diverse as Gun Control in the Third Reich and The Founders’ Second Amendment, and he was heavily involved in Heller and McDonald.”

– U.S. District Judge Michael J. Reagan
Shepard v. Madigan, 2014 WL 4825592, *7 (S.D. Ill. 2014)

Supreme Court Practice

Practice Areas

Gun Control Act/National Firearms Act

  • Firearm technical classifications
  • ATF regulatory compliance
  • FFL warning conferences, license denials,
    and revocations
  • Forfeitures
  • Legal disabilities and restoration of civil rights
  • Criminal defense

State and Local Laws

  • “Assault weapon” restrictions
  • Legal status of firearms
  • Challenging restrictions

Civil and Criminal Cases Litigated >>

Books

Congressional Testimony

Scholarly Articles

Op-Eds & Short Articles

“New York Gun Rights Case Before Supreme Court with Massive Consequences,” The Hill, July 23, 2021.

“Does the Bill of Rights Protect You Outside Your Home?,” Washington Times, May 24, 2021.

“The Long March to Restore the Second Amendment in New York,” America’s 1st Freedom, Jan. 26, 2021.

“The Truth about NICS,” America’s 1st Freedom, Nov. 25, 2020.

“Ballot Initiatives: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly,” America’s 1st Freedom, August 31, 2020.

“How Does New York City Get Away with This?” America’s 1st Freedom, July 26, 2020.

“Will the Second Amendment Survive Coronavirus?,” National Review, Mar. 30, 2020, and Independent Institute, Mar. 31, 2020.

“What Makes a Gun a Gun?” America’s 1st Freedom, Mar. 23, 2020.

“We Must Remember Our History of Freedom,” America’s 1st Freedom, Mar. 8, 2020.

“Second Amendment Sanctuaries Started in 1774,” American Thinker, Dec. 22, 2019.

“Recalling the Tragic History of Gun Control,” The American Spectator, Sept. 4, 2019.

View More Op-Eds and Short Articles >>

TV Appearances

Radio Interviews

Instagram Updates

Unlike today, there was a time in this country's p Unlike today, there was a time in this country's past where carrying firearms to church was required:

"[A]s early as 1619, Virginia mandated the public carrying of arms when going to and fro in certain circumstances, such as when traveling to church."  

"A 1642 Maryland law provided that 'no man able to bear arms to go to church or chapel or any considerable distance from home without fixed gun and one change at least of powder and shot.' "

"In 1740, South Carolina required that 'every white male inhabitant of this Province . . . who . . . is . . . liable to bear arms in the militia of this Province,' who shall 'go and resort to any church or any other public place of divine worship,' must 'carry with him a gun or a pair of horse-pistols . . . with at least six charges of gunpowder and ball.' " 

"[I]n 1770, Georgia required that 'every male white inhabitant of this province , . . who is or shall be liable to bear arms in the militia . . . and resorting . . . to any church . . . shall carry with him a gun, or a pair of pistols.' "

 From The Right to Bear Arms: A Constitutional Right of the People or a Privilege of the Ruling Class?, pgs. 133-135
.
.
.
#americanhistory #ushistory #freedom #2ahistory #rtkba #rtba  #therighttobeararms #therighttobeararmshalbrook #righttobeararms #armed #rightofthepeople #armedpeople #keepandbeararms #2a #2ndamendment #righttokeepandbeararms #gunrightsmatter #selfdefense #gunssavelives #gunlaw #gunlaws #armyourself  #secondamendment #2amendmentsupporter #constitutionalright #therightofthepeople #ShallNotBeInfringed #churchshooting #carryagun #requiredcarry

Unlike today, there was a time in this country's past where carrying firearms to church was required:

"[A]s early as 1619, Virginia mandated the public carrying of arms when going to and fro in certain circumstances, such as when traveling to church."  

"A 1642 Maryland law provided that 'no man able to bear arms to go to church or chapel or any considerable distance from home without fixed gun and one change at least of powder and shot.' "

"In 1740, South Carolina required that 'every white male inhabitant of this Province . . . who . . . is . . . liable to bear arms in the militia of this Province,' who shall 'go and resort to any church or any other public place of divine worship,' must 'carry with him a gun or a pair of horse-pistols . . . with at least six charges of gunpowder and ball.' " 

"[I]n 1770, Georgia required that 'every male white inhabitant of this province , . . who is or shall be liable to bear arms in the militia . . . and resorting . . . to any church . . . shall carry with him a gun, or a pair of pistols.' "

 From The Right to Bear Arms: A Constitutional Right of the People or a Privilege of the Ruling Class?, pgs. 133-135
.
.
.
#americanhistory #ushistory #freedom #2ahistory #rtkba #rtba  #therighttobeararms #therighttobeararmshalbrook #righttobeararms #armed #rightofthepeople #armedpeople #keepandbeararms #2a #2ndamendment #righttokeepandbeararms #gunrightsmatter #selfdefense #gunssavelives #gunlaw #gunlaws #armyourself  #secondamendment #2amendmentsupporter #constitutionalright #therightofthepeople #ShallNotBeInfringed #churchshooting #carryagun #requiredcarry
...

August is National Shooting Sports Month which mea August is National Shooting Sports Month which means it's time to spend a fun day at a gun range practicing target-shooting sports.  Rifles, handguns, shotguns ... targets, clays ... shooting offers variety.  Last year, NSSF estimated that 8.4 million people bought their first firearm.  This is a great time for experienced shooters to help teach the novice some shooting skills. 

NSSF has plenty of help and suggestions on their website: https://www.letsgoshooting.org/

Photo: I enjoyed working with some of my grandsons this past spring and teaching them to shoot in different positions.
.
.
.
#letsgoshooting #nssf #NationalShootingSportsFoundation #NationalShootingSportsMonth #shootingsportsmonth #americanfreedom #americantradition #keepandbeararms #2a #rtkba #rtba #2ndamendment #righttobeararms #righttokeepandbeararms #2afreedom #shootingsports #shootingtradition #firearm #firearms #shootingskill #shootingguns #shooting #teachingshooting #shootinglessons #targetpractice #shootmore #learntoshoot #firearmstraining #teachkidstoshoot #teachkidstoshootsafely

August is National Shooting Sports Month which means it's time to spend a fun day at a gun range practicing target-shooting sports.  Rifles, handguns, shotguns ... targets, clays ... shooting offers variety.  Last year, NSSF estimated that 8.4 million people bought their first firearm.  This is a great time for experienced shooters to help teach the novice some shooting skills. 

NSSF has plenty of help and suggestions on their website: https://www.letsgoshooting.org/

Photo: I enjoyed working with some of my grandsons this past spring and teaching them to shoot in different positions.
.
.
.
#letsgoshooting #nssf #NationalShootingSportsFoundation #NationalShootingSportsMonth #shootingsportsmonth #americanfreedom #americantradition #keepandbeararms #2a #rtkba #rtba #2ndamendment #righttobeararms #righttokeepandbeararms #2afreedom #shootingsports #shootingtradition #firearm #firearms #shootingskill #shootingguns #shooting #teachingshooting #shootinglessons #targetpractice #shootmore #learntoshoot #firearmstraining #teachkidstoshoot #teachkidstoshootsafely
...

"In The Prince (1532) Machiavelli explicitly anal "In The Prince (1532) Machiavelli explicitly analyzed the relation between an armed people and freedom in these terms: 

"[A]n Armed republic submits less easily to the rule of one of its citizens than a republic armed by foreign forces.

"Rome and Sparta were for many centuries well armed and free.  The Swiss are well armed and enjoy great freedom.

"Among other evils caused by being disarmed, it renders you contemptible. . . . [I]t is not reasonable to suppose that one who is armed will obey willingly one who is unarmed; or that any unarmed man will remain safe among armed servants." 

From That Every Man Be Armed, p. 24.

"Statue of Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527), Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy, engraving by Friedr Frankel, from Letture di famiglia (Family Readings), Year III, 1855, Trieste."
.
.
.
#niccolòmachiavelli #niccolomachiavelli #machiavelli #machiavellitheprince #2ahistory #2a #2ndamendment #rtkba #righttobeararms #armedpeople #armedpopulace #armed #armedcitizen #keepandbeararms #selfdefense #thateverymanbearmed #armedrepublic #romeandaparta #armedswiss #unarmed #armedservants #swissfreedom #swisshistory #freedom #historybuff #historygeek #greatitalians #armedandfree #learnfromhistory

"In The Prince (1532) Machiavelli explicitly analyzed the relation between an armed people and freedom in these terms: 

"[A]n Armed republic submits less easily to the rule of one of its citizens than a republic armed by foreign forces.

"Rome and Sparta were for many centuries well armed and free.  The Swiss are well armed and enjoy great freedom.

"Among other evils caused by being disarmed, it renders you contemptible. . . . [I]t is not reasonable to suppose that one who is armed will obey willingly one who is unarmed; or that any unarmed man will remain safe among armed servants."

From That Every Man Be Armed, p. 24.

"Statue of Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527), Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy, engraving by Friedr Frankel, from Letture di famiglia (Family Readings), Year III, 1855, Trieste."
.
.
.
#niccolòmachiavelli #niccolomachiavelli #machiavelli #machiavellitheprince #2ahistory #2a #2ndamendment #rtkba #righttobeararms #armedpeople #armedpopulace #armed #armedcitizen #keepandbeararms #selfdefense #thateverymanbearmed #armedrepublic #romeandaparta #armedswiss #unarmed #armedservants #swissfreedom #swisshistory #freedom #historybuff #historygeek #greatitalians #armedandfree #learnfromhistory
...

Here's a sight you won't see today:  "In 1766, th Here's a sight you won't see today:  "In 1766, the 11-year-old James Monroe attended Campbell Academy. His routine: 'Well before dawn, James left for school, carrying his books under one arm with his powder horn under the other and his musket slung across his back.' ”  From The Right to Bear Arms: A Constitutional Right of the People or a Privilege of the Ruling Class?, pg. 138.

Image: "Advertising trade card features an illustration of a boy as he shoots a rifle at birds flying overhead, circa 1880."

(Nice drawing but he's shooting in the wrong direction! Haha!)
.
.
.
#jamesmonroe #presidentmonroe #presidentjamesmonroe #foundingfather #schoolbooks #powderhorn #musket #1766 #campbellacademy #americanhistory #ushistory #freedom #2ahistory #rtkba #rtba  #therighttobeararms #therighttobeararmshalbrook #righttobeararms #armed #rightofthepeople  #keepandbeararms #2a #2ndamendment #righttokeepandbeararms #gunrightsmatter #gunskills #learntoshoot #youngsportsman #youngoutdoorsman #boysshootingguns

Here's a sight you won't see today:  "In 1766, the 11-year-old James Monroe attended Campbell Academy. His routine: 'Well before dawn, James left for school, carrying his books under one arm with his powder horn under the other and his musket slung across his back.' ”  From The Right to Bear Arms: A Constitutional Right of the People or a Privilege of the Ruling Class?, pg. 138.

Image: "Advertising trade card features an illustration of a boy as he shoots a rifle at birds flying overhead, circa 1880."

(Nice drawing but he's shooting in the wrong direction! Haha!)
.
.
.
#jamesmonroe #presidentmonroe #presidentjamesmonroe #foundingfather #schoolbooks #powderhorn #musket #1766 #campbellacademy #americanhistory #ushistory #freedom #2ahistory #rtkba #rtba  #therighttobeararms #therighttobeararmshalbrook #righttobeararms #armed #rightofthepeople  #keepandbeararms #2a #2ndamendment #righttokeepandbeararms #gunrightsmatter #gunskills #learntoshoot #youngsportsman #youngoutdoorsman #boysshootingguns
...

"Under New York law, illegal possession of a loade "Under New York law, illegal possession of a loaded handgun is a crime punishable by imprisonment for 'at least three years,' but the sentence 'shall not exceed fifteen years.' With a premises license, one can keep a handgun in his or her dwelling.  To get a carry license, the authorities must decide that the applicant has a 'proper cause.'

"You might think that 'proper cause' would include the exercise of the Second Amendment right to bear arms for self-defense.  But you'd be wrong.  In Orwellian New (York) speak, 'proper cause' means whatever government officials want it to mean."

The above is an excerpt from the beginning of my new article:  “Will We Be Allowed to Carry Our Freedom Where We Need It Most?”  America’s First Freedom, Aug. 2021, 28.  Direct link: https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nra/aff_202108/index.php?startid=18#/p/28
.
.
.
#nysrpavbruen #therighttobeararms #rtkba #rtba #righttobeararms #righttokeepandbeararms #2ndamendment #righttocarry #righttocarryarms #concealedcarry #guncontrol #scotus #2ahistory #2a #secondamendment #constitutionalright #therightofthepeople #shallnotbeinfringed #2acase #nysrpa #nysrpavcorlett #firearmslaws #2ndamendmentrights #2arightsforall #stephenhalbrook #americas1stfreedom #nramagazine #sullivanlaw #orwellian #statuteofnorthhampton

"Under New York law, illegal possession of a loaded handgun is a crime punishable by imprisonment for 'at least three years,' but the sentence 'shall not exceed fifteen years.' With a premises license, one can keep a handgun in his or her dwelling.  To get a carry license, the authorities must decide that the applicant has a 'proper cause.'

"You might think that 'proper cause' would include the exercise of the Second Amendment right to bear arms for self-defense.  But you'd be wrong.  In Orwellian New (York) speak, 'proper cause' means whatever government officials want it to mean."

The above is an excerpt from the beginning of my new article:  “Will We Be Allowed to Carry Our Freedom Where We Need It Most?”  America’s First Freedom, Aug. 2021, 28.  Direct link: https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nra/aff_202108/index.php?startid=18#/p/28
.
.
.
#nysrpavbruen #therighttobeararms #rtkba #rtba #righttobeararms #righttokeepandbeararms #2ndamendment #righttocarry #righttocarryarms #concealedcarry #guncontrol #scotus #2ahistory #2a #secondamendment #constitutionalright #therightofthepeople #shallnotbeinfringed #2acase #nysrpa #nysrpavcorlett #firearmslaws #2ndamendmentrights #2arightsforall #stephenhalbrook #americas1stfreedom #nramagazine #sullivanlaw #orwellian #statuteofnorthhampton
...

"When the Court announced it would hear NYSRPA v "When the Court announced it would hear NYSRPA v. Corlett, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo said, 'The streets of New York are not the O.K. Corral and the NRA's dream of a society where everyone is terrified of each other and armed to the teeth is abhorrent to our values.'

"Actually, the murder rate in today’s New York City far exceeds that of any cattle town in the Wild West. In 2021, shootings are up almost 70 percent over 2020. Compared to 2019, murders are up nearly 50 percent. People are concerned for their safety. New York is not alone, violent crime in urban areas is surging nationwide. Record gun sales demonstrate that Americans are taking advantage of their Second Amendment rights for self-protection, many for the first time."

Excerpted from my new opinion piece: "New York gun rights case before Supreme Court with massive consequences," The Hill, July 23, 2021

Direct link:

https://thehill.com/opinion/judiciary/564279-new-york-gun-rights-case-before-supreme-court-with-massive-consequences
.
.
.
#nysrpavbruen #therighttobeararms #rtkba #rtba #righttobeararms #righttokeepandbeararms #2ndamendment #righttocarry #righttocarryarms #concealedcarry #guncontrol #scotus #2ahistory #2a #ushistory #secondamendment #constitutionalright #therightofthepeople #shallnotbeinfringed #2acase #nysrpa #nysrpavcorlett #firearmslaws #2ndamendmentrights #2arightsforall #stephenhalbrook #thehill #okcorral #nygovcuomo #gunsales

"When the Court announced it would hear NYSRPA v. Corlett, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo said, 'The streets of New York are not the O.K. Corral and the NRA's dream of a society where everyone is terrified of each other and armed to the teeth is abhorrent to our values.'

"Actually, the murder rate in today’s New York City far exceeds that of any cattle town in the Wild West. In 2021, shootings are up almost 70 percent over 2020. Compared to 2019, murders are up nearly 50 percent. People are concerned for their safety. New York is not alone, violent crime in urban areas is surging nationwide. Record gun sales demonstrate that Americans are taking advantage of their Second Amendment rights for self-protection, many for the first time."

Excerpted from my new opinion piece: "New York gun rights case before Supreme Court with massive consequences," The Hill, July 23, 2021

Direct link:

https://thehill.com/opinion/judiciary/564279-new-york-gun-rights-case-before-supreme-court-with-massive-consequences
.
.
.
#nysrpavbruen #therighttobeararms #rtkba #rtba #righttobeararms #righttokeepandbeararms #2ndamendment #righttocarry #righttocarryarms #concealedcarry #guncontrol #scotus #2ahistory #2a #ushistory #secondamendment #constitutionalright #therightofthepeople #shallnotbeinfringed #2acase #nysrpa #nysrpavcorlett #firearmslaws #2ndamendmentrights #2arightsforall #stephenhalbrook #thehill #okcorral #nygovcuomo #gunsales
...

"This right 'to keep and bear arms,' implies the r "This right 'to keep and bear arms,' implies the right to use them--as much as a provision securing to the people the right to buy and keep food, would imply their right also to eat it.  But this implied right to use arms, is only a right to use them in a manner consistent with natural rights--as, for example, in defence of life, liberty, chastity, & c."  -- Lysander Spooner, American abolitionist and political philosopher.  Quoted in That Every Man Be Armed: The Evolution of a Constitutional Right, p. 102.
.
.
.
#lysanderspooner #abolitionist #politicalphilosopher #individualanarchist #legaltheorist #theunconstitutionalityofslavery #naturalrights #thateverymanbearmed #selfdefense #rtba #rtkba #rkba #righttobeararms #beararms #2ahistory #armedcitizen #firearmslawhistory #humanright #defendyourself #selfdefensequotes #lifeandliberty #lifelibertychastity #defendliberty #defendlife #righttobuyandkeepfood #righttoarms #2ndamendment #2amendment #rightofthepeople #righttoeat

"This right 'to keep and bear arms,' implies the right to use them--as much as a provision securing to the people the right to buy and keep food, would imply their right also to eat it.  But this implied right to use arms, is only a right to use them in a manner consistent with natural rights--as, for example, in defence of life, liberty, chastity, & c."  -- Lysander Spooner, American abolitionist and political philosopher.  Quoted in That Every Man Be Armed: The Evolution of a Constitutional Right, p. 102.
.
.
.
#lysanderspooner #abolitionist #politicalphilosopher #individualanarchist #legaltheorist #theunconstitutionalityofslavery #naturalrights #thateverymanbearmed #selfdefense #rtba #rtkba #rkba #righttobeararms #beararms #2ahistory #armedcitizen #firearmslawhistory #humanright #defendyourself #selfdefensequotes #lifeandliberty #lifelibertychastity #defendliberty #defendlife #righttobuyandkeepfood #righttoarms #2ndamendment #2amendment #rightofthepeople #righttoeat
...

Marathon & Triathlon Photos

Reykjavík Half-Marathon, 2019
Reykjavík, Iceland

Jungfrau Marathon, 2004
Jungfrau, Switzerland

Marine Corps Marathon
Washington, D.C.

Alcatraz Triathlon, 2001
San Francisco, California

Berlin Marathon, 2019
Berlin, Germany

Berlin Marathon, 2017
Berlin, Germany