Before the U.S. Supreme Court in Castillo v. U.S. (2000)

“Stephen Halbrook is an attorney with extensive knowledge of the historical underpinnings of the Second Amendment and practical knowledge of litigating in this rapidly evolving area of law. His writings include topics as diverse as Gun Control in the Third Reich and The Founders’ Second Amendment, and he was heavily involved in Heller and McDonald.”

– U.S. District Judge Michael J. Reagan
Shepard v. Madigan, 2014 WL 4825592, *7 (S.D. Ill. 2014)

Supreme Court Practice

Practice Areas

Gun Control Act/National Firearms Act

  • Firearm technical classifications
  • ATF regulatory compliance
  • FFL warning conferences, license denials,
    and revocations
  • Forfeitures
  • Legal disabilities and restoration of civil rights
  • Criminal defense

State and Local Laws

  • “Assault weapon” restrictions
  • Legal status of firearms
  • Challenging restrictions

Civil and Criminal Cases Litigated >>

Books

Congressional Testimony

Scholarly Articles

Op-Eds & Short Articles

“The Long March to Restore the Second Amendment in New York,” America’s 1st Freedom, Jan. 26, 2021.

“The Truth about NICS,” America’s 1st Freedom, Nov. 25, 2020.

“Ballot Initiatives: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly,” America’s 1st Freedom, August 31, 2020.

“How Does New York City Get Away with This?” America’s 1st Freedom, July 26, 2020.

“Will the Second Amendment Survive Coronavirus?” National Review, Mar. 30, 2020, and Independent Institute, Mar. 31, 2020.

“What Makes a Gun a Gun?” America’s 1st Freedom, Mar. 23, 2020.

“We Must Remember Our History of Freedom,” America’s 1st Freedom, Mar. 8, 2020.

“Second Amendment Sanctuaries Started in 1774,” American Thinker, Dec. 22, 2019.

“Recalling the Tragic History of Gun Control,” The American Spectator, Sept. 4, 2019.

“Gun Control: The Kristallnacht Version Of ‘Common-Sense Safety,” Investor’s Business Daily, Nov. 15, 2018.

View More Op-Eds and Short Articles >>

TV Appearances

Radio Interviews

Instagram Updates

"A Constitution of Government once changed from Fr "A Constitution of Government once changed from Freedom, can never be restored.  Liberty, once lost, is lost forever." -- John Adams in a Letter to Abigail Adams (July 7, 1775)
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#johnadams #abigailadams #foundingfathers #uspresidents #ushistory #americanhistory #foundingfathersquote #greatmeninhistory #armedcitizen #johnadamsquotes #liberty #usgovernment #usconstitution #constitution #freedom #freedomwarning #libertylost #johnandabigailadams #johnadamsletter #libertyoncelostislostforever #libertyordeath #donttreadonme #patriot #freedomlost #constitutionallimitation

"A Constitution of Government once changed from Freedom, can never be restored.  Liberty, once lost, is lost forever." -- John Adams in a Letter to Abigail Adams (July 7, 1775)
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#johnadams #abigailadams #foundingfathers #uspresidents #ushistory #americanhistory #foundingfathersquote #greatmeninhistory #armedcitizen #johnadamsquotes #liberty #usgovernment #usconstitution #constitution #freedom #freedomwarning #libertylost #johnandabigailadams #johnadamsletter #libertyoncelostislostforever #libertyordeath #donttreadonme #patriot #freedomlost #constitutionallimitation
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"Not only is bowhunting fun and a real challenge, "Not only is bowhunting fun and a real challenge, but it's good for you.  The exercise in the fresh air, the chance to get away from everyday pressures and problems, a return to the basic relationships between man and his environment."  -- Fred Bear
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#fredbear #fredbearquotes #huntingquotes #getoutdoors #hunt #hunting #righttohunt #gamehunting #huntinglife #hunter #huntingisfun #outdoorlife #outdoorsman #outdoorsforthesoul #hunters #fieldhunting #gohunt #archery #bowhunting #bowhuntinglife #bowhunter #archeryhunter #bowseason #archeryhunting #bowhunterslife #hunting_photo #bowhunt #bowhunter #bowhuntingquotes #whatgetsyououtdoors

"Not only is bowhunting fun and a real challenge, but it's good for you.  The exercise in the fresh air, the chance to get away from everyday pressures and problems, a return to the basic relationships between man and his environment."  -- Fred Bear
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#fredbear #fredbearquotes #huntingquotes #getoutdoors #hunt #hunting #righttohunt #gamehunting #huntinglife #hunter #huntingisfun #outdoorlife #outdoorsman #outdoorsforthesoul #hunters #fieldhunting #gohunt #archery #bowhunting #bowhuntinglife #bowhunter #archeryhunter #bowseason #archeryhunting #bowhunterslife #hunting_photo #bowhunt #bowhunter #bowhuntingquotes #whatgetsyououtdoors
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"Gun Control in the Third Reich, Stephen Halbrook' "Gun Control in the Third Reich, Stephen Halbrook's excellent history of gun control in Germany, shows that, motives notwithstanding, removing weapons from the general population always disarms society vis-à-vis its worst elements.  In Germany the authorities tried to deal with the Nazi and Communist mobs that were shaking society's foundations indirectly, by disarming ordinary people.  But their cowardice ended up delivering a helpless population to the Nazis' tender mercies.  Halbrook's richly documented history leads Americans to ask why those among us who decry violence in our society choose to try tightening the vise on ordinary citizens' capacity to defend themselves rather than to constrain the sectors of society most responsible for the violence." -- Angelo M. Codevilla, Professor of Emeritus of International Relations, Boston University

This book is available as the following translations:

Hitler e o Desarmamento, Como o nazismo desarmou os Judeus e os “Inimigos do Reich”. São Paulo, Brasil: Vide Editorial, 2017.    

Fatales Erbe – Hitlers Waffengesetze: Die legale Entwaffnung von Juden und “Staatsfeinden” im “Dritten Reich”. Berlin: Berlin Story Verlag, 2016. 

Bas Les Armes! Le Désarmement Des Juifs et Des “Ennemis Intérieurs du Iiie Reich”. Genève: Éditions Slatkine, 2016.
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#nazihistory #nazigermany #nationalsocialist #wwiihistory #guncontrol #disarm #gunregistration #firearms #weaponsban #ww2history #illegalweapons #guncontrolinthethirdreich #firearm #rtkba #rtkba #disarmsociety #disarmedpopulace
#naziguncontrol #wwIIhistory #ww2 #wwii #learnfromthepast #tyranny #tyrannicalregime #gunconfiscation #nazigermanhistory #selfdefense #governmentalpower #righttoselfdefense #angelocodevilla

"Gun Control in the Third Reich, Stephen Halbrook's excellent history of gun control in Germany, shows that, motives notwithstanding, removing weapons from the general population always disarms society vis-à-vis its worst elements.  In Germany the authorities tried to deal with the Nazi and Communist mobs that were shaking society's foundations indirectly, by disarming ordinary people.  But their cowardice ended up delivering a helpless population to the Nazis' tender mercies.  Halbrook's richly documented history leads Americans to ask why those among us who decry violence in our society choose to try tightening the vise on ordinary citizens' capacity to defend themselves rather than to constrain the sectors of society most responsible for the violence." -- Angelo M. Codevilla, Professor of Emeritus of International Relations, Boston University

This book is available as the following translations:

Hitler e o Desarmamento, Como o nazismo desarmou os Judeus e os “Inimigos do Reich”. São Paulo, Brasil: Vide Editorial, 2017.    

Fatales Erbe – Hitlers Waffengesetze: Die legale Entwaffnung von Juden und “Staatsfeinden” im “Dritten Reich”. Berlin: Berlin Story Verlag, 2016. 

Bas Les Armes! Le Désarmement Des Juifs et Des “Ennemis Intérieurs du Iiie Reich”. Genève: Éditions Slatkine, 2016.
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#nazihistory #nazigermany #nationalsocialist #wwiihistory #guncontrol #disarm #gunregistration #firearms #weaponsban #ww2history #illegalweapons #guncontrolinthethirdreich #firearm #rtkba #rtkba #disarmsociety #disarmedpopulace
#naziguncontrol #wwIIhistory #ww2 #wwii #learnfromthepast #tyranny #tyrannicalregime #gunconfiscation #nazigermanhistory #selfdefense #governmentalpower #righttoselfdefense #angelocodevilla
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"Are we at last brought to such humiliating and de "Are we at last brought to such humiliating and debasing degradation, that we cannot be trusted with arms for our defense? Where is the difference between having our arms in possession and under our direction, and having them under the management of Congress?  If our defense be the real object of having those arms, in whose hands can they be trusted with more propriety, or equal safety to us, as in our own hands?" -- Patrick Henry, 3 J. Elliot, Debates in the Several State Conventions 45, 2d ed. Philadelphia, 1836
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#patrickhenry #patrickhenryquotes #foundingfathers #patriot #patriots #donttreadonme #famousamericans #libertyordeath #freedom #armedpopulace #disarmedpopulace #2ahistory #greatquotes #rtkba #possessarms #selfdefense #armedcitizens #2a #2amendment #2ndamendment #rtba #militia #americanmilitia #inthehandsofthepeople #governmentalpower #liberty #sacredrights #naturalrights #humanrights #2ndamendmenthistory

"Are we at last brought to such humiliating and debasing degradation, that we cannot be trusted with arms for our defense? Where is the difference between having our arms in possession and under our direction, and having them under the management of Congress?  If our defense be the real object of having those arms, in whose hands can they be trusted with more propriety, or equal safety to us, as in our own hands?" -- Patrick Henry, 3 J. Elliot, Debates in the Several State Conventions 45, 2d ed. Philadelphia, 1836
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#patrickhenry #patrickhenryquotes #foundingfathers #patriot #patriots #donttreadonme #famousamericans #libertyordeath #freedom #armedpopulace #disarmedpopulace #2ahistory #greatquotes #rtkba #possessarms #selfdefense #armedcitizens #2a #2amendment #2ndamendment #rtba #militia #americanmilitia #inthehandsofthepeople #governmentalpower #liberty #sacredrights #naturalrights #humanrights #2ndamendmenthistory
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Bobby Doerr was a famous baseball player for the B Bobby Doerr was a famous baseball player for the Boston Red Sox (1937-1951) and after retirement, served as a scout and coach.  Baseball wasn't the only sport he loved - he was also an avid fisherman and enjoyed his collection of hunting rifles.  In this 1951 photo, he holds a rifle with his son Donnie and wife Monica.
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#bobbydoerr #bobdoerr #robertpershingdoerr #bostonredsox #redsox #rifle #rifles #huntingrifle #huntingrifles #baseball #baseballplayer #fishing #fisherman #sportsman #donniedoerr #Monicadoerr #baseballscout #baseballcoach #rtkba #rtba #2a #flyfishing #flyfisherman #hunter  #hunting #outdoorsman #baseballhistory #vintagephoto #1951 #majorleaguebaseball

Bobby Doerr was a famous baseball player for the Boston Red Sox (1937-1951) and after retirement, served as a scout and coach.  Baseball wasn't the only sport he loved - he was also an avid fisherman and enjoyed his collection of hunting rifles.  In this 1951 photo, he holds a rifle with his son Donnie and wife Monica.
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#bobbydoerr #bobdoerr #robertpershingdoerr #bostonredsox #redsox #rifle #rifles #huntingrifle #huntingrifles #baseball #baseballplayer #fishing #fisherman #sportsman #donniedoerr #Monicadoerr #baseballscout #baseballcoach #rtkba #rtba #2a #flyfishing #flyfisherman #hunter #hunting #outdoorsman #baseballhistory #vintagephoto #1951 #majorleaguebaseball
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"The initial wave of the English Revolution (1642- "The initial wave of the English Revolution (1642-1660) sparked by Oliver Cromwell was unsuccessful in instituting equal rights for commoners, including the right to be armed.  Both Cromwell and Charles II (1660-1685) favored a 'new militia' which was closer to a standing army, select militia, or national guard than a militia composed of the whole people."  From That Every Man Be Armed: The Evolution of a Constitutional Right, p. 42.

Engraving: "Circa 1655, English soldier and statesman Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England on his horse."
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#olivercromwell #cromwell #englishgeneral #englishstatesman #charlesii #kingcharlesii #selectmilitia #militia #nationalguard #britishhistory #englishpolitician #standingarmy #2ahistory #2a #2ndamendment #rtkba #righttobeararms #armedpeople #armedpopulace #armed #armedcitizen #keepandbeararms #selfdefense #2ndamendmenthistory #englishrevolution #thateverymanbearmed #newmilitia #rightsforcommoners #righttoarms #righttobearmed

"The initial wave of the English Revolution (1642-1660) sparked by Oliver Cromwell was unsuccessful in instituting equal rights for commoners, including the right to be armed.  Both Cromwell and Charles II (1660-1685) favored a 'new militia' which was closer to a standing army, select militia, or national guard than a militia composed of the whole people."  From That Every Man Be Armed: The Evolution of a Constitutional Right, p. 42.

Engraving: "Circa 1655, English soldier and statesman Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England on his horse."
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#olivercromwell #cromwell #englishgeneral #englishstatesman #charlesii #kingcharlesii #selectmilitia #militia #nationalguard #britishhistory #englishpolitician #standingarmy #2ahistory #2a #2ndamendment #rtkba #righttobeararms #armedpeople #armedpopulace #armed #armedcitizen #keepandbeararms #selfdefense #2ndamendmenthistory #englishrevolution #thateverymanbearmed #newmilitia #rightsforcommoners #righttoarms #righttobearmed
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The German Wehrmacht invaded France, bringing "a The German Wehrmacht invaded France, bringing "a supply of posters with proclamations and regulations that they nailed up on entering the towns and villages.  Most prominent was a poster threatening the civilians with the death penalty unless they immediately surrendered all firearms and radio transmitters.  It was dubbed the Decree of May 10, 1940, on the Possession of Arms in the Occupied Territory, and it stated:

                1. All firearms and ammunition, hand grenades, explosive devices and other war matérial are to be surrendered. 

		The delivery must take place within 24 hours at the nearest German military administrative headquarters or garrison, provided that other special arrangements have not been made. The mayors (heads of the district councils) must accept full responsibility for complete implementation.  Commanding officers are authorized to approve exceptions.

		2. Anyone who, contrary to this decree, possesses firearms, munitions, hand grenades, explosives and other war matériel will be sentenced to death or forced labor or in lesser cases to prison.

 		3. Anyone who commits any acts of violence whatsoever against the German army or its members will be punished with death.

 	The Commander in Chief of the Army"

From Gun Control in Nazi-Occupied France: Tyranny and Resistance, pgs. 40-41.

Photo:  "Adolf Hitler visits Paris with architect Albert Speer (left) and artist Arno Breker (right), June 23, 1940."  The Eiffel Tower officially opened in Paris on this date in 1889.
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#wehrmacht #guncontrol #nazigermany #disarm #weaponssearch #naziguncontrol #francehistory #nazioccupiedfrance #righttobeararms #gunregistration #guncontrolinnazioccupiedfrance #weaponsconfiscation #ww2radioban #decreeofMay101940 #1940history #explosivesban #firearmsban #munitions #handgrendades #europeanhistory #wwIIhistory #ww2history #firearms #onthisday #onthisdate #hitlerhistory #eiffeltowerhistory #albertspeer #arnobreker #turninyourweapons

The German Wehrmacht invaded France, bringing "a supply of posters with proclamations and regulations that they nailed up on entering the towns and villages.  Most prominent was a poster threatening the civilians with the death penalty unless they immediately surrendered all firearms and radio transmitters.  It was dubbed the Decree of May 10, 1940, on the Possession of Arms in the Occupied Territory, and it stated:

                1. All firearms and ammunition, hand grenades, explosive devices and other war matérial are to be surrendered. 

The delivery must take place within 24 hours at the nearest German military administrative headquarters or garrison, provided that other special arrangements have not been made. The mayors (heads of the district councils) must accept full responsibility for complete implementation.  Commanding officers are authorized to approve exceptions.

2. Anyone who, contrary to this decree, possesses firearms, munitions, hand grenades, explosives and other war matériel will be sentenced to death or forced labor or in lesser cases to prison.

  3. Anyone who commits any acts of violence whatsoever against the German army or its members will be punished with death.

The Commander in Chief of the Army"

From Gun Control in Nazi-Occupied France: Tyranny and Resistance, pgs. 40-41.

Photo:  "Adolf Hitler visits Paris with architect Albert Speer (left) and artist Arno Breker (right), June 23, 1940."  The Eiffel Tower officially opened in Paris on this date in 1889.
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#wehrmacht #guncontrol #nazigermany #disarm #weaponssearch #naziguncontrol #francehistory #nazioccupiedfrance #righttobeararms #gunregistration #guncontrolinnazioccupiedfrance #weaponsconfiscation #ww2radioban #decreeofMay101940 #1940history #explosivesban #firearmsban #munitions #handgrendades #europeanhistory #wwIIhistory #ww2history #firearms #onthisday #onthisdate #hitlerhistory #eiffeltowerhistory #albertspeer #arnobreker #turninyourweapons
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"Who are the militia? Are they not ourselves? Is i "Who are the militia? Are they not ourselves? Is it feared, then, that we shall turn our arms each man against his own bosom. Congress have no power to disarm the militia. Their swords, and every other terrible implement of the soldier, are the birthright of an American… The unlimited power of the sword is not in the hands of either the federal or state governments, but, where I trust in God it will ever remain, in the hands of the people." - Tench Coxe, The Pennsylvania Gazette, Feb. 20, 1788.

Photo:  Syracuse University (no date given)
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#tenchcoxe #foundingfathers #politicaleconomist #militia #americanmilitia #americanbirthright #stayarmed #inthehandsofthepeople #governmentpower #governmentalpower #constitution #liberty #freedom  #pennsylvaniagazette #patriots #freedomfighter #fightforliberty #americanhistory #donttreadonme #2ahistory #sacredrights #naturalrights #humanrights #privileges #defendyourrights #keepyourrights #federalgovernment #stategovernment #powerofthesword #whoarethemilitia

"Who are the militia? Are they not ourselves? Is it feared, then, that we shall turn our arms each man against his own bosom. Congress have no power to disarm the militia. Their swords, and every other terrible implement of the soldier, are the birthright of an American… The unlimited power of the sword is not in the hands of either the federal or state governments, but, where I trust in God it will ever remain, in the hands of the people." - Tench Coxe, The Pennsylvania Gazette, Feb. 20, 1788.

Photo:  Syracuse University (no date given)
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#tenchcoxe #foundingfathers #politicaleconomist #militia #americanmilitia #americanbirthright #stayarmed #inthehandsofthepeople #governmentpower #governmentalpower #constitution #liberty #freedom  #pennsylvaniagazette #patriots #freedomfighter #fightforliberty #americanhistory #donttreadonme #2ahistory #sacredrights #naturalrights #humanrights #privileges #defendyourrights #keepyourrights #federalgovernment #stategovernment #powerofthesword #whoarethemilitia
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Marathon & Triathlon Photos

Reykjavík Half-Marathon, 2019
Reykjavík, Iceland

Jungfrau Marathon, 2004
Jungfrau, Switzerland

Marine Corps Marathon
Washington, D.C.

Alcatraz Triathlon, 2001
San Francisco, California

Berlin Marathon, 2019
Berlin, Germany

Berlin Marathon, 2017
Berlin, Germany